General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Patronin
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Patronin
Annotation Symbol
CG33130
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0263197
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
ssp4, l(2)k07433
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:17,519,024..17,535,866 [-]
Recombination map
2-83
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the CAMSAP1 family. (A1ZAU8)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Summaries
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Involved in mitotic spindle assembly (PubMed:17412918). Regulates microtubule (MT) severing (PubMed:17412918). Antagonizes the activity of the kinesin-13 depolymerase Klp10A thereby switching off the depolymerization of the MTs at their pole-associated minus ends, which turns off poleward flux and induces anaphase B spindle elongation (PubMed:20946984, PubMed:24100293). Involved in asymmetric cell division of sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells by playing a role in the asymmetric localization of Sara-expressing endosomes to the pIIa daughter cell but not to the pIIb cell. Klp98A targets Sara-expressing endosomes to the central spindle which is symmetrically arranged in early cell division. During late cytokinesis, central spindle asymmetry is generated by enrichment of Patronin on the pIIb side which protects microtubules from depolymerization by Klp10A while unprotected microtubules on the pIIa side are disassembled by Klp10A, leading to the asymmetric delivery of Sara-expressing endosomes to the pIIa daughter cell (PubMed:26659188).
(UniProt, A1ZAU8)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
13
Number of Unique Polypeptides
13

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Patronin or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Patronin for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0086948
5507
1517
FBtr0086949
5163
1540
FBtr0086950
6018
1630
FBtr0273446
6782
1663
FBtr0273447
5925
1599
FBtr0300603
6141
1671
FBtr0332260
6195
1689
FBtr0332261
6150
1674
FBtr0332262
6168
1680
FBtr0332263
5742
1538
FBtr0332264
5640
1504
FBtr0332265
6110
1439
FBtr0332266
6177
1683
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0086104
170.9
1517
8.50
FBpp0086105
173.2
1540
8.65
FBpp0086106
183.6
1630
8.86
FBpp0271954
187.5
1663
8.85
FBpp0271955
180.5
1599
8.42
FBpp0289830
188.1
1671
8.77
FBpp0304550
189.9
1689
8.71
FBpp0304551
188.8
1674
8.60
FBpp0304552
188.9
1680
8.68
FBpp0304553
173.5
1538
8.65
FBpp0304554
169.2
1504
8.64
FBpp0304555
161.4
1439
8.68
FBpp0304556
189.4
1683
8.98
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Associates with the minus end of the microtubules.
(UniProt, A1ZAU8)
Domain
The CKK domain binds microtubules.
(UniProt, A1ZAU8)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Patronin using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (14 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR031372
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:19946
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001091246
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR031372
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001091246
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001091246
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001091246
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR031372
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with microtubule minus-end
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001091246
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Patronin in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 7 )
Transgenic Constructs ( 14 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Patronin
Allele of Patronin
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Patronin
Deletions and Duplications ( 1 )
Summary of Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (5)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900QU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500S6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0093 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X008M )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Associates with the minus end of the microtubules.
    (UniProt, A1ZAU8 )
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-83
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:17,519,024..17,535,866 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    54C1-54C3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}l(2)k01209EP2177&P{lacW}k11012a and P{lacW}l(2)k07433k07433
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    54C1-54C2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (13)
    Genomic Clones (22)
    cDNA Clones (76)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for identity of: Patronin ssp4
      Source for identity of: ssp4 l(2)k07433
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: CG33130 BcDNA:LD17191
      Source for merge of: l(2)k07433 CG33130
      Source for merge of: CG18459 CG18460
      Source for merge of: CG18459 CG18462 CG6516
      Additional comments
      Annotations CG18459, CG18460, CG18462 and CG6516 merged as CG33130 in release 3 of the genome annotation.
      Source for merge of CG33130 BcDNA:LD17191 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).
      Source for merge of CG18459 CG18460 was a shared cDNA ( date:010720 ).
      Other Comments
      Patronin counteracts Klp10A activity at spindle poles to turn off poleward flux and induced anaphase B spindle elongation.
      RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene results in aberrantly short spindles when assayed in S2 cells. This phenotype can be observed when the screen is performed with or without Cdc27 dsRNA.
      RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene in S2 cells causes pronounced microtubule severing in interphase cells. The severed microtubules often continue to grow at their minus ends, causing them to treadmill through the cytoplasm.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      The gene is named "Patronin" for the Latin "patronus" (protector), as it protects microtubule minus ends in vivo against depolymerization by Kinesin-13.
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 88 )
      Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Linkouts
      ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (14)
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (55)