General Information
Symbol
Dmel\sns
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
sticks and stones
Annotation Symbol
CG33141
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0024189
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Sticks and stones (Sns) is a single-pass transmembrane protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which mediates cell-cell recognition and adhesion. Sns marks the fusion competent population of myoblasts. It also contributes to formation and function of the nephrocyte diaphragm and cell sorting within the developing ommatidia. [Date last reviewed: 2017-03-02]
Also Known As
43-49
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:8,798,489..8,856,091 [+]
Recombination map
2-59
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\sns or the JBrowse view of Dmel\sns for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.49
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0088635
8505
1479
FBtr0111043
8694
1542
FBtr0339277
8544
1492
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
8.035 (compiled cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0087716
161.9
1479
7.81
FBpp0110338
168.2
1542
8.11
FBpp0308386
162.7
1492
8.10
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1483 (aa); 162 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\sns using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (14 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Mec2; FB:FBgn0030993
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:hbs; FB:FBgn0029082
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with EMBL:AF035385
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with EMBL:AF035385
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Expression of sns is observed in two bands in the fusion-competent myoblasts of the somatic and visceral mesoderm, a dorsal band corresponding to the fusion-competent myoblasts of the visceral mesoderm and a ventral band corresponding to the fusion-competent myoblasts of the somatic mesoderm.
sns transcript is detected in the embryonic visceral and somatic musculature.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immuno-electron microscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
sns protein is expressed only in terminally differentiated myoblasts.
sns protein is enriched at the cell membrane. The protein localizes to discrete sites in the membrane as muscle founder cell fusion progresses, and amounts of the protein decline during the process.
sns protein is localized to regions of cell-cell contact in mononucleate embryonic garland cells and binucleate embryonic/larval garland cells; distribution is also observed in in intracellular and cell surface puncta. kirre protein is partially colocalized with sns protein. sns protein is expressed in garland cells at all larval stages; immuno-EM reveals sns protein to be localized to the nephrocyte diaphragm of larval garland cells in second and third instar larvae.
The pattern of sns protein expression matches that of sns transcript expression, with expression detected in visceral and somatic musculature.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{sns-GAL4.GCN}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sns-GAL4.K}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sns-GAL4.S}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sns-lacZ.K}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sns-lacZ.S}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sns-mCherry.NLS}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\sns in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 35 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of sns
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    Yes
      0
      Yes
      Other relevant insertions
      insertion of mobile activating element
      Name
      Expression Data
      miscellaneous insertions
      Name
      Expression Data
      Transgenic Constructs ( 29 )
      For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
      Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of sns
      Allele of sns
      Mutagen
      Associated Transgenic Construct
      Stocks
      Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of sns
      GAL4 construct
      vital-reporter construct
      Name
      Expression Data
      reporter construct
      Deletions and Duplications ( 9 )
      Summary of Phenotypes
      For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
      Lethality
      Allele
      Sterility
      Allele
      Other Phenotypes
      Allele
      Phenotype manifest in
      Allele
      Orthologs
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Homo sapiens (Human) (20)
      Species\Gene Symbol
      Score
      Best Score
      Best Reverse Score
      Alignment
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      14 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
       
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
       
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
       
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
       
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (20)
      Species\Gene Symbol
      Score
      Best Score
      Best Reverse Score
      Alignment
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      14 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
       
      1 of 15
      No
      No
       
      1 of 15
      No
      No
       
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (13)
      13 of 13
      Yes
      Yes
      1 of 13
      No
      Yes
      1 of 13
      No
      Yes
      1 of 13
      No
      Yes
      1 of 13
      No
      Yes
      1 of 13
      No
      Yes
      1 of 13
      No
      Yes
      1 of 13
      No
      Yes
      1 of 13
      No
      No
      1 of 13
      No
      No
      1 of 13
      No
      No
      1 of 13
      No
      Yes
      1 of 13
      No
      Yes
      Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
      8 of 12
      Yes
      Yes
      1 of 12
      No
      Yes
      1 of 12
      No
      No
      1 of 12
      No
      No
      1 of 12
      No
      Yes
      Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (12)
      14 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
      12 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
      No orthologs reported.
      Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
      No orthologs reported.
      Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
      No orthologs reported.
      Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900K4 )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      AAA Syntenic Ortholog
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Drosophila melanogaster
      fruit fly
      Drosophila suzukii
      Spotted wing Drosophila
      Drosophila simulans
      Drosophila sechellia
      Drosophila erecta
      Drosophila yakuba
      Drosophila ananassae
      Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
      Drosophila persimilis
      Drosophila willistoni
      Drosophila virilis
      Drosophila mojavensis
      Drosophila grimshawi
      Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500HS )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Musca domestica
      House fly
      Glossina morsitans
      Tsetse fly
      Mayetiola destructor
      Hessian fly
      Mayetiola destructor
      Hessian fly
      Aedes aegypti
      Yellow fever mosquito
      Anopheles darlingi
      American malaria mosquito
      Anopheles darlingi
      American malaria mosquito
      Anopheles gambiae
      Malaria mosquito
      Culex quinquefasciatus
      Southern house mosquito
      Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00DY )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Bombyx mori
      Silkmoth
      Danaus plexippus
      Monarch butterfly
      Heliconius melpomene
      Postman butterfly
      Apis florea
      Little honeybee
      Apis mellifera
      Western honey bee
      Bombus impatiens
      Common eastern bumble bee
      Bombus terrestris
      Buff-tailed bumblebee
      Linepithema humile
      Argentine ant
      Megachile rotundata
      Alfalfa leafcutting bee
      Nasonia vitripennis
      Parasitic wasp
      Dendroctonus ponderosae
      Mountain pine beetle
      Dendroctonus ponderosae
      Mountain pine beetle
      Dendroctonus ponderosae
      Mountain pine beetle
      Dendroctonus ponderosae
      Mountain pine beetle
      Tribolium castaneum
      Red flour beetle
      Pediculus humanus
      Human body louse
      Pediculus humanus
      Human body louse
      Rhodnius prolixus
      Kissing bug
      Cimex lectularius
      Bed bug
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Zootermopsis nevadensis
      Nevada dampwood termite
      Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00D1 )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Strigamia maritima
      European centipede
      Ixodes scapularis
      Black-legged tick
      Ixodes scapularis
      Black-legged tick
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Tetranychus urticae
      Two-spotted spider mite
      Tetranychus urticae
      Two-spotted spider mite
      Tetranychus urticae
      Two-spotted spider mite
      Daphnia pulex
      Water flea
      Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G00UN )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Ciona intestinalis
      Vase tunicate
      Human Disease Model Data
      FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
      Download
      Models ( 2 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      model of  kidney disease
      inferred from mutant phenotype
      model of  kidney disease
      inferred from mutant phenotype
      Interactions ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Comments ( 0 )
       
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      2R
      Recombination map
      2-59
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      2R:8,798,489..8,856,091 [+]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      44F1-44F1
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(2)44DEa05847 and P{lacW}Rya-r44Fk04913
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Left of (cM)
      Notes
      Maps between positions 43 and 49 on chromosome 2.
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (10)
      Genomic Clones (49)
      cDNA Clones (10)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        BDGP DGC clones
          RNAi and Array Information
          Linkouts
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          Antibody Information
          Laboratory Generated Antibodies
          Commercially Available Antibodies
           
          Other Information
          Relationship to Other Genes
          Source for database identify of
          Source for database merge of
          Source for merge of: sns 43-49
          Source for merge of: sns CG18464 CG12495 CG13754 CG13753 CG13752 CG2385 CG8278
          Source for merge of: sns CG13755
          Additional comments
          Source for merge of sns CG18464 CG12495 CG13754 CG13753 CG13752 CG2385 CG8278 was sequence comparison ( date:000622 ).
          Source for merge of sns CG13755 was sequence comparison ( date:001104 ).
          Other Comments
          RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.
          snsis required for the formation of syncytia within the visceral musculature of the midgut.
          sns is essential for myoblast fusion.
          sns mutant embryos show a dramatic absence of muscle fibres and a large number of unfused myosin-expressing cells. Formation of the heart and visceral musculature appears normal, the CNS and PNS show no gross abnormalities, and no defects in dorsal closure are seen.
          Origin and Etymology
          Discoverer
          Etymology
          Identification
          External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 41 )
          Crossreferences
          NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
          GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
          GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
          RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
          UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          Linkouts
          BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
          FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
          FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
          Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
          FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
          Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
          InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
          KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
          modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
          Synonyms and Secondary IDs (25)
          Reported As
          Symbol Synonym
          CG18464
          Secondary FlyBase IDs
          • FBgn0026614
          • FBgn0033331
          • FBgn0033332
          • FBgn0033333
          • FBgn0033334
          • FBgn0033335
          • FBgn0033336
          • FBgn0040776
          • FBgn0042193
          • FBgn0053141
          Datasets (0)
          Study focus (0)
          Experimental Role
          Project
          Project Type
          Title
          References (204)