General Information
Symbol
Dmel\NetA
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Netrin-A
Annotation Symbol
CG18657
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0015773
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
CT27014, NetrinA
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:14,604,012..14,653,928 [-]
Recombination map
1-49
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
NETRINS -
Netrins are secreted axon guidance molecules that guide growing commissural axons towards the midline. They are capable of eliciting either attraction or repulsion of axons by binding to fra or unc-5 receptors. (Adapted from FBrf0191277).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Netrins control guidance of CNS commissural axons at the midline and peripheral motor axons to their target muscles.
(UniProt, Q24567)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\NetA or the JBrowse view of Dmel\NetA for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Gene model reviewed during 5.39
Gene model reviewed during 5.56
Multiphase exon postulated: exon reading frame differs in alternative transcripts; overlap >20aa.
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0073942
3245
726
FBtr0308337
3249
667
FBtr0346088
3339
726
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.2 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0073759
80.4
726
8.45
FBpp0300656
73.1
667
9.01
FBpp0311922
80.4
726
8.45
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

726 aa isoforms: NetA-PA, NetA-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\NetA using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (9 terms)
Molecular Function (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:NetB; FB:FBgn0015774
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:unc-5; FB:FBgn0034013
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:A1Z920,UniProtKB:Q24568
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:NetB; FB:FBgn0015774
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:A1Z920,UniProtKB:Q24568
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mesectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

mesoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
NetA RNA is first detected in the developing CNS in early stage 12 embryos at which time it is observed in a subset of the cells along the midline and in a few cells lateral to the midline. In mid stage 12, expression decreases in the lateral cells and increases in the midline cells. By stage 13, it appears that the midline expression is limited to the midline glia. Midline expression continues throughout embryogenesis.
NetA expression is first observed at the cellular blastoderm stage in the presumptive mesoderm and persists there through gastrulation and then fades. It continues to be expressed strongly in the visceral mesoderm. NetA is first expressed in the ventral midline at stage 12 and 13 in the two anterior pairs of midline glia and in the VUM neurons. Expression fades in the VUM neurons but persists in the midline glia throughout embryogenesis. In addition, expression is seen in a large pair of cells posterior to the posterior commissure wh ch may be associated with the median neuroblast (MNB). NetA is also expressed in a dynamic pattern in some CNS neurons. NetA is expressed in lateral patches in the epidermis which subsequently elongate along the anterior edge of the segment border. It is expressed strongly by dorsal muscle 1 and weakly by dorsal muscle 2. NetA is expressed transiently in the embryonic precursors of the leg discs. Finally it is expressed in many cells in the brain and in some epidermal structures in the head that may be imaginal discs.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
NetA protein is expressed in the CNS starting in stage 12. It is first observed in cells just lateral to the midline and accumulates in midline cells by late stage 12. A variable degree of axon accumulation is observed starting in stage 1 . Weak NetA expression is seen on motor axons as they traverse and synapse with muscles of the dorsal group. It is likely that this expression originates from earlier muscle expression.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:A1Z920,UniProtKB:Q24568
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GawB}NetANP4012
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
adult brain cell body rind | restricted

Comment: adult brain cortex, possibly a subset of cells

High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\NetA in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 15 )
Transgenic Constructs ( 10 )
Deletions and Duplications ( 8 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
photoreceptor cell & axon, with Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP
photoreceptor cell & axon, with Scer\GAL4GMR.PF
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (15)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
9 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
 
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (15)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (12)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (14)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902ZE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091502IN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W06QD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X09C8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G005L )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    5 of 15
       
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Interactions Browser
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      X
      Recombination map
      1-49
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      X:14,604,012..14,653,928 [-]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      12F1-12F2
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1599 and P{EP}EP334&P{EP}EP977
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      12E10-12E11
      12E10-12E10
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      12F1-12F2
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (15)
      Genomic Clones (18)
      cDNA Clones (41)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for database merge of
        Additional comments
        Other Comments
        Layer specific localisation of NetA and NetB is sufficient for R8 targeting.
        fra protein can capture Netrin protein (encoded by NetA and NetB) and "present" it for recognition by other receptors.
        Although the Netrins are expressed in the target of retinal axons, they are not required for retinal projections.
        NetA and NetB function as short-range target recognition molecules for specific motoneurons. The relative balance of Sema-2a and the Netrins controls the choice of a specific target and the avoidance of a potential target. fra is required for Netrin-mediated attraction, but not repulsion.
        NetA and NetB are expressed at the CNS midline and play an important role in commissural growth cone guidance.
        Relationship to Netrin not known.
        NetA and NetB are expressed by subsets of muscles and function in motor axon targetting. Ectopic expression and loss of function analysis in both the CNS and periphery demonstrates the pattern of netrin expression is crucial to correct patterning of axons, providing evidence that Netrins function as instructive rather than simply permissive, guidance cues.
        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 51 )
        Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
        Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
        Reported As
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
        • FBtr0073942
        • FBpp0073759
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (167)