General Information
Symbol
Dmel\nmo
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
nemo
Annotation Symbol
CG7892
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0011817
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (2.7.11.24)
Gene Snapshot
Nemo (Nmo) is an atypical proline-directed serine/threonine kinase with roles in numerous developmental processes, including ommatidial rotation/planar cell polarity, retinal specification and neuronal function, and circadian clock speed. Nmo regulates the activity of several signal transduction pathways, including BMP, Wnt, and Notch, and is implicated in fly models of neurodegenerative diseases. [Date last reviewed: 2016-09-01]
Also Known As
nemo, Nlk, adk
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:7,979,046..8,054,147 [+]
Recombination map
3-21
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein (2.7.11.24)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
ATYPICAL MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES -
Atypical Mitogen-activated protein kinases are proline-directed serine/threonine kinases that share significant sequence homology with the kinase domain of conventional MAPKs. They are not part of the conventional MAPK cascade and differ in key residues of the activation loop. (Adapted from PMID:21372320).
Negative Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of canonical Wnt signaling down-regulation the pathway, resulting in the attenuation of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
8
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\nmo or the JBrowse view of Dmel\nmo for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Stage-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during embryogenesis (FBrf0215804); all variants may not be annotated.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697
Stop-codon suppression (UGA) postulated; FBrf0234051.
Gene model reviewed during 6.25
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0076754
5131
414
FBtr0076755
3131
414
FBtr0076757
2624
414
FBtr0076756
2421
430
FBtr0076758
2757
430
FBtr0076759
2250
430
FBtr0333223
6235
430
FBtr0474156
2250
439
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
7.6, 7.2, 5.8, 5.4, 4.6, 4.1, 3.6, 3.2 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0076471
46.4
414
7.93
FBpp0076472
46.4
414
7.93
FBpp0076474
46.4
414
7.93
FBpp0076473
48.2
430
7.61
FBpp0076475
48.2
430
7.61
FBpp0076476
48.2
430
7.61
FBpp0305425
48.2
430
7.61
FBpp0423155
49.1
439
7.61
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

414 aa isoforms: nmo-PA, nmo-PB, nmo-PC
430 aa isoforms: nmo-PE, nmo-PF, nmo-PG, nmo-PH
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
477, 434 (aa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\nmo using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (19 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR003527
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
non-traceable author statement
Biological Process (13 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000622075
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000622075
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000622075
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000622075
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with MGI:MGI:1201387
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

organism | ubiquitous

Comment: maternally deposited

somatic cell

Comment: zygotic expression in most cells

wing cell

Comment: 25-30 hr APF; expression is enriched immediately adjacent to wing veins

Additional Descriptive Data
One nmo isoform is expressed in a stripe posterior the morphogenetic furrow. The other is expressed at low levels throughout the disc.
nmo transcripts are detected close to the morphogenetic furrow in third instar eye discs.
nmo transcripts are expressed in a complex pattern throughout development. Six transcripts are expressed in early embryos, (3.2, 3.6, 4.1, 4.6, 5.4, and 5.8 kb). A 7.2kb transcript appears in late embryos and a 7.6kb transcript is detected in adult heads. The seven transcripts are all developmentally regulated with varying patterns. In general, transcription is highest in embryos, third instar larvae, and pupae.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\nmo in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 41 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of nmo
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
    Other relevant insertions
    miscellaneous insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 17 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of nmo
    Allele of nmo
    Mutagen
    Associated Transgenic Construct
    Stocks
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of nmo
    vital-reporter construct
    Name
    Expression Data
    Deletions and Duplications ( 5 )
    Summary of Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Sterility
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    abdominal tergite & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL469B
    abdominal tergite & microchaeta, with Scer\GAL469B
    mesothoracic tergum & macrochaeta
    scutum & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4ap-md544
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    12 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
     
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    12 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
    10 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
    7 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    6 of 12
    No
    Yes
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
    11 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    3 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
    11 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (13)
    2 of 9
    Yes
    No
    2 of 9
    Yes
    No
    2 of 9
    Yes
    No
    2 of 9
    Yes
    No
    2 of 9
    Yes
    No
    2 of 9
    Yes
    No
    2 of 9
    Yes
    No
    2 of 9
    Yes
    No
    1 of 9
    No
    Yes
    1 of 9
    No
    No
    1 of 9
    No
    No
    1 of 9
    No
    No
    1 of 9
    No
    No
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
    1 of 12
    Yes
    No
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091908YC )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915058H )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Anopheles gambiae
    Malaria mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W052U )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X04Z1 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strigamia maritima
    European centipede
    Ixodes scapularis
    Black-legged tick
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G05X6 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Human Disease Model Data
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
      Download
      Models ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Interactions ( 1 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Comments ( 0 )
       
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      Negative Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
      Negative regulators of canonical Wnt signaling down-regulation the pathway, resulting in the attenuation of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
      External Data
      Linkouts
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      3L
      Recombination map
      3-21
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      3L:7,979,046..8,054,147 [+]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      66A22-66B3
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0721708223&P{EP}Rac2EP3118 and P{lacW}Nmtj1C7
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      66B1-66B2
      66B1-66B2
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (35)
      Genomic Clones (41)
      cDNA Clones (144)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: nmo anon- EST:Gibbs3
      Source for merge of: nmo anon-WO0118547.332 anon-WO0140519.256
      Additional comments
      Source for merge of nmo anon- EST:Gibbs3 was sequence comparison ( date:030707 ).
      Source for merge of nmo anon-WO0118547.332 anon-WO0140519.256 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).
      Other Comments
      nmo is required in the larval eye disc through most of the first 45[o] of ommatidial rotation to regulate the speed at which the ommatidial precursors move. nmo is required in photoreceptors R1, R6 and R7 for normal orientation.
      When dsRNA constructs are made and transiently transfected into S2 cells in RNAi experiments, spindle abnormalities, centrosome abnormalities, lagging chromatids and a whole range of mitotic abnormalities are seen.
      Overexpressed nmo reduces the levels of arm protein in regions where it is stabilised by wg signaling.
      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
      Area matching Drosophila Nemo gene, Acc. No. U12010.
      Area matching Drosophila EST AA439393 (inverted).
      nmo is required during wing development for wing shape and vein patterning.
      Genetic interactions between nmo and other mutations implicate nmo as an antagonist of wg.
      Complementation group isolated in a screen for dominant enhancers and suppressors of Nact.sev or Nnucl.sev.
      Double mutant analysis suggests that nmo and fz functional synergistically in directing ommatidial rotation.
      "Nemo" is Korean for a four-sided figure.
      The nmo gene is required for the rotation of photoreceptor clusters in the developing eye. Mosaic analysis indicates that nmo acts within the ommatidium, suggesting local autonomy of the determination of rotation. nmo+ function in any photoreceptor cell is sufficient for normal rotation.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 77 )
      Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
      DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (21)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      anon-EST:Gibbs3
      anon-EST:Liang-2.43
      anon-WO0118547.332
      anon-WO0140519.256
      anon-WO0172774.138
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0014365
      • FBgn0019910
      • FBgn0023460
      • FBgn0044612
      • FBgn0046458
      • FBgn0062087
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (196)