General Information
Symbol
Dmel\trp
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
transient receptor potential
Annotation Symbol
CG7875
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003861
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Transient receptor potential is a non-selective plasma membrane cation channel with high Ca2+ permeability. It is highly eye-enriched and contributes to the electrical response to light in photoreceptors. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-23]
Also Known As
559, DmTRP, dTRP
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:29,914,521..29,920,289 [-]
Recombination map
3-99
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the transient receptor (TC 1.A.4) family. STrpC subfamily. (P19334)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
TRANSIENT RECEPTOR POTENTIAL CHANNELS -
The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channel family are cation channels conserved from invertebrates to humans. TRP channels respond to diverse stimuli and are involved in a number of environmental sensory pathways. (Adapted from FBrf0220930 and FBrf0225477).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
A light-sensitive calcium channel that is required for inositide-mediated Ca(2+) entry in the retina during phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated phototransduction. Ca(2+) influx may then feed back and inhibit PLC, thereby facilitating phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2) recycling. Trp and trpl act together in the light response, though it is unclear whether as heteromultimers or as distinct units, and are activated by fatty acids and metabolic stress. Also required for olfactory adaptation and may be involved in olfactory system development.
(UniProt, P19334)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
trp: transient receptor potential (J.C. Hall)
Mutation believed to affect an intermediate step in phototransduction, the wild-type gene apparently encoding a protein involved in an intermediate step between photoreception and opening of the light-sensitive ion channels (Minke, 1977, 1982; Minke and Armon, 1980; Montell and Rubin, 1989; Suss et al., 1989). Although the mutants behave normally in dim light, they behave as though blind in bright light and there is an abnormally slow dark recovery (Cosens and Manning, 1969; Cosens, 1971). The light-evoked response of the photoreceptors, as shown in the ERG, decays to baseline during an intense, prolonged stimulus, but not during a dim or brief stimulus (Cosens and Manning, 1969; Minke et al., 1975); each quantum bump, however, seems intrinsically normal in shape and amplitude (Suss et al., 1989); fluoride ions, which lead to excitation and adaptation of wild-type photoreceptors in the dark when superfused onto an eye slice, did neither to mutant cells. A hydrolysis-resistant analogue of GTP, which excites wild-type photoreceptors and results in noisy depolarizations, reduced the mutant's light response. The visual pigment in R1-6 photoreceptors is normal in young trp flies, but its concentration decreases with age (Minke, 1982). The rhabdomeres degenerate with age and there is accumulation of glycogen granules (Cosens and Perry, 1972). Ultimately, photoreceptor cell bodies also degenerate (Isono, unpublished). Raising the mutant flies in complete darkness prevents the degenerative changes from appearing but has no effect on the electrophysiological phenotype (Isono and Pak, unpublished). Initially, the light-evoked migration of pigment granules occurs in a normal manner (i.e., toward the rhabdomeres) in trp mutants, but the granules move away after only five seconds of sustained light (Lo and Pak, 1981). The trp mutation (unlike norpA) does not block degeneration caused by rdgB (Chen and Stark, 1983, J. Insect Physiol. 29: 133-40); in a rdgB;trp genetic background, R1-6 photoreceptors are eliminated and the R7,8 photoreceptors that remain show the trp phenotype. trp is expressed in the photoreceptors of the ocelli as well as in those of the compound eyes (Hu et al., 1978; Montell et al., 1985). trp mutants seem to exhibit normal visually-mediated learning under the high light-intensity conditions that largely eliminate photoreceptor potentials (Reichert and Bicker, 1979).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\trp or the JBrowse view of Dmel\trp for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Gene model reviewed during 5.53
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085513
4129
1275
FBtr0331356
4149
246
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.5 (northern blot)
4.2 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0084879
142.6
1275
8.31
FBpp0303774
27.9
246
4.35
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1275 (aa); 145 (kD observed); 143 (kD predicted)
1274 (aa); 142 (kD)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
The C-terminus interacts with a PDZ domain of inaD to form the core of the inaD signaling complex. Other members of the complex include norpA (PLC), inaC (PKC), and possibly trpl, ninaC, FKBP59, calmodulin and rhodopsin. Forms homomultimers and heteromultimers with trpl. Interaction with trpl is mediated in part by the N-terminal region and the transmembrane domains. Also interacts, though to a lower extent, with Trpgamma.
(UniProt, P19334)
Post Translational Modification
Phosphorylated by inaC.
(UniProt, P19334)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\trp using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (32 terms)
Molecular Function (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:trp; FB:FBgn0003861
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q24008
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:inaF-B; FB:FBgn0259918
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VJJ7
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P48994
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P19334
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:12333
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with MGI:MGI:109528
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000012230
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000012230
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (17 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (15 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000012230
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:12333
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with MGI:MGI:109528
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000012230
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000012230
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:trpl; FB:FBgn0005614
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q24008
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000012230
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000012230
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
radioisotope in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Eye-enriched transcripts determined by ratio of expression level in wild-type heads. versus expression level in so heads.
trp transcripts of similar size and abundance are present in trp4 and wild type adult flies.
trp transcripts of similar size and abundance are present in trp1 and wild type adult flies.
trp transcripts of similar size and abundance are present in trp7 and wild type adult flies.
trp RNA is present in adult heads but not bodies. It is absent in ey flies.
Transcript levels are significantly reduced in trp3 mutant adults.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
adult antennal nerve

Comment: reference states 75 hr APF

eye

Comment: reference states 75 hr APF

mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
trp protein is detected in developing, but not in mature, antennae.
trp protein localizes to the rhabdomeres in adult flies.
trp protein was localized to photoreceptor cells and possibly the corneal layer by immunocytochemical studies on sections of the adult eye.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:trpl; FB:FBgn0005614
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q24008
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\trp in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 22 )
Transgenic Constructs ( 36 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of trp
Allele of trp
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of trp
GAL4 construct
Name
Expression Data
Deletions and Duplications ( 1 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
photoreceptor cell & axon
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
No
9 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (7)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
No
8 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (7)
9 of 13
Yes
No
8 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (7)
5 of 12
Yes
No
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (13)
10 of 15
Yes
No
9 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
11 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (4)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091901XH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501JW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01ID )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01GK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G029I )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
Download
Models ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
Interactions ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments ( 0 )
 
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
protein-protein
Interacting group
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
The C-terminus interacts with a PDZ domain of inaD to form the core of the inaD signaling complex. Other members of the complex include norpA (PLC), inaC (PKC), and possibly trpl, ninaC, FKBP59, calmodulin and rhodopsin. Forms homomultimers and heteromultimers with trpl. Interaction with trpl is mediated in part by the N-terminal region and the transmembrane domains. Also interacts, though to a lower extent, with Trpgamma.
(UniProt, P19334 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3R
Recombination map
3-99
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:29,914,521..29,920,289 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
99C6-99C7
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}ncd05884 and P{lacW}l(3)s2500s2500
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
99C-99C
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
99C5-99C6
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Mapped to 3-97 by A. Manning and to 3-106 by Hardy, Orevi and Merriam.
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (20)
Genomic Clones (15)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (179)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of
Additional comments
Other Comments
Ca2+ influx via trp channels is required to maintain phosphatidylinositol 4,5, bisphosphate (PIP2) levels in photoreceptors.
The trp-inaD protein-protein interaction is required for maintaining transduction complexes in the rhabdomeres.
The trp and trpl channels are specific targets of metabolic stress; anoxia opens trp and trpl channels in the dark. Mitochondrial uncouplers and depletion of ATP activate the trp and trpl channels in the dark in situ.
trp dependent channels have a small unitary conductance. Many channels can be gated coordinately.
The fact that the ability of non-inaD bound trp to contribute to photoreceptor responses depends on the presence of trpl suggests that there may be interactions between trpl and the non-inaD-bound trp protein.
inaF is required for trp channel function, possibly by having a direct regulatory role in the channel operation.
trp mutants are normal in olfactory response but defective in olfactory adaptation.
trp has a role in olfactory system development.
A PDZ domain is required in vivo for anchoring an ion channel to its normal subcellular site: inaD is required for spatially localising trp to a large signalling complex.
The biophysical properties of trpl channels expressed in a stably transfected cell line are compared to those of trp. Results show that, for a wide range of properties, the native and expressed channels are functionally equivalent lending strong support to the proposal that channels encoded by trpl can completely account for the component of the light-sensitive conductance remaining in the trp mutant.
Wild-type light activated conductance is composed of two separate channels, with the properties of trp- and trpl-encoded channels as determined in the respective mutants.
Coexpression of trp and trpl leads to a store-operated, outwardly rectifying current distinct from that owing to either trp or trpl alone. trp and trpl proteins interact directly, indicating the trp-trpl-dependent current is mediated by heteromultimeric association between the two subunits.
Reflectance measurements performed on inaC and trp photoreceptor mutants confirm that the pupil can serve as a useful tool in fly phototransduction research.
trpl activity is masked by functional trp channels and together trp and trpl are essential components of the light-activated conductance. trp and trpl need not form heteromeric channels because trpl mutants only contain trp protein and trp mutants only have trpl protein. Since trp and trpl mutants respond to light activation then each channel on its own must be capable of sensing the intracellular messenger that gates the light activated conductance. Activation of one does not require prior activation of the other.
Antibodies to the inaD protein co-precipitate trp gene product. The interaction has been mapped to the 19 amino acid C-terminus of trp and the PDZ domain of inaD. inaD functions as a regulatory subunit of the trp Ca2+ channel.
Analysis of trp-trpl fusion proteins suggests that the carboxy terminal domain of trpl plays an important role in determining constitutive activity of the protein, and the carboxy terminal domain of trp contains structural features necessary for activation by thapsigargin.
trp may function as a capacitative calcium entry channel.
The subcellular localisation of trp protein has been determined.
Light induces a rapid increase in internal calcium concentration in photoreceptors. Mutations in trp reduce the inward flux of calcium in the photoreceptors.
The calmodulin-binding and ankyrin-repeats have been investigated in vitro using fusion proteins.
Drosophila photoreceptors have two light activated photoreceptors, one of which is highly selective for Ca2+ and trp-dependent. Double mutants of trp and inaC were compared with the single mutants in whole cell recordings in dissociated ommatidia. Results indicate that both trp-dependent and trp-independent channel classes require inaC PKC gene product for their normal regulation.
Expression analysis results suggest that the trp protein is a novel photoreceptor membrane associated protein. Proper function of the trp gene product during pupal development is important for normal visual transduction in the adult.
Developmental expression pattern of the cDNA clone is examined.
Identified as a cDNA clone that is expressed at a low frequency in the body but abundantly in the head of the adult.
The same kinds of results from applying fluoride ions or the GPT analogue to the trp mutant in Drosophila (see 'phenotype') were observed in experiments on the nss mutant in the blowfly Lucilia.
Mutation believed to affect an intermediate step in phototransduction, the wild-type gene apparently encoding a protein involved in an intermediate step between photoreception and opening of the light-sensitive ion channels (Minke, 1977; Minke, 1982; Minke and Armon, 1980; Montell and Rubin, 1989; Suss et al., 1989). Although the mutants behave normally in dim light, they behave as though blind in bright light and there is an abnormally slow dark recovery (Cosens and Manning, 1969; Cosens, 1971). The light-evoked response of the photoreceptors, as shown in the ERG, decays to baseline during an intense, prolonged stimulus, but not during a dim or brief stimulus (Cosens and Manning, 1969; Minke, Wu and Pak, 1975); each quantum bump, however, seems intrinsically normal in shape and amplitude (Suss et al., 1989); fluoride ions, which lead to excitation and adaptation of wild-type photoreceptors in the dark when superfused onto an eye slice, did neither to mutant cells. A hydrolysis-resistant analogue of GTP, which excites wild-type photoreceptors and results in noisy depolarizations, reduced the mutant's light response. The visual pigment in R1-6 photoreceptors is normal in young trp flies, but its concentration decreases with age (Minke, 1982). The rhabdomeres degenerate with age and there is accumulation of glycogen granules (Cosens and Perry, 1972). Ultimately, photoreceptor cell bodies also degenerate (Isono, unpublished). Raising the mutant flies in complete darkness prevents the degenerative changes from appearing but has no effect on the electrophysiological phenotype (Isono and Pak, unpublished). Initially, the light-evoked migration of pigment granules occurs in a normal manner (i.e., toward the rhabdomeres) in trp mutants, but the granules move away after only five seconds of sustained light (Lo and Pak, 1981). The trp mutation (unlike norpA) does not block degeneration caused by rdgB (Chen and Stark, 1983); in a rdgB;trp genetic background, R1-6 photoreceptors are eliminated and the R7,8 photoreceptors that remain show the trp phenotype. trp is expressed in the photoreceptors of the ocelli as well as in those of the compound eyes (Hu, Reichert and Stark, 1978; Montell, Jones, Hafen and Rubin, 1985). trp mutants seem to exhibit normal visually-mediated learning under the high light-intensity conditions that largely eliminate photoreceptor potentials (Reichert and Bicker, 1979).
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 51 )
Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (17)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
trp
(Al-Ramahi et al., 2018, Clemson et al., 2018, Katz and Minke, 2018, Ni et al., 2017, Voolstra et al., 2017, Wangler et al., 2017, Yasin et al., 2017, Zhang et al., 2016, Aradska et al., 2015, Cerny et al., 2015, Chen et al., 2015, Garlapow et al., 2015, Green et al., 2015, Hardie and Juusola, 2015, Huang et al., 2015, Jaiswal et al., 2015, Klein et al., 2015, Rister et al., 2015, Voolstra et al., 2015, Delgado et al., 2014, Menuz et al., 2014, Cerny et al., 2013, Katz et al., 2013, Lee et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2013, Astorga et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Pak et al., 2012, Rodriguez et al., 2012, Senthilan et al., 2012, Tsubouchi et al., 2012, Oberegelsbacher et al., 2011, Petersen and Stowers, 2011, Richter et al., 2011, Rosenbaum et al., 2011, Vasiliauskas et al., 2011, Elsaesser et al., 2010, Huang et al., 2010, Kain et al., 2010, Kim et al., 2010, Kuromi et al., 2010, Kwon et al., 2010, Kwon et al., 2010, Mishra et al., 2010, Sanxaridis and Tsunoda, 2010, Satoh et al., 2010, Voolstra et al., 2010, Delgado and Bacigalupo, 2009, Parnas et al., 2009, Parnas et al., 2009, Cheng and Nash, 2008, Krause et al., 2008, Kwon et al., 2008, Leung et al., 2008, Montell, 2008.2.18, Myers et al., 2008, Peng et al., 2008, Rosenzweig et al., 2008, Cheng and Nash, 2007, Chintapalli et al., 2007, Landry et al., 2007, Lee et al., 2007, Liu et al., 2007, Lumpkin, 2007, Sanxaridis et al., 2007, Vosshall, 2007, Cronin et al., 2006, Garcia-Murillas et al., 2006, Han et al., 2006, Hiesinger et al., 2006, Wijnen et al., 2006, Zhai et al., 2006, Chorna-Ornan et al., 2005, Georgiev et al., 2005, LaLonde et al., 2005, Montell, 2005, Nelson et al., 2005, Roos et al., 2005, Sarfare et al., 2005, Taraszka et al., 2005, Wang et al., 2005, Yang et al., 2005, Cronin et al., 2004, Geng et al., 2004, Huang et al., 2004, Iakhine et al., 2004, Wang et al., 2004, Hall, 2003, Agam et al., 2000, Henderson et al., 2000, Wuttke and Tompkins, 2000)
Secondary FlyBase IDs
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    References (377)