General Information
Symbol
Dmel\kni
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
knirps
Annotation Symbol
CG4717
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001320
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
ri
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:20,692,330..20,695,378 [-]
Recombination map
3-47
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR0 subfamily. (P10734)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
NUCLEAR RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY 0 (LIGAND-INDEPENDENT) TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The nuclear receptor subfamily 0 (NR0) are C4 zinc finger sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate transcription. The NR0 subfamily are atypical, highly divergent members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that have only retained the DNA-binding domain. The absence of a ligand-binding domain suggests that NR0 transcription factors function in a ligand-independent manner. (Adapted from FBrf0086042 and FBrf0184203).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Transcriptional repressor. Binds to multiple sites in the eve stripe 3 enhancer element. Plays an essential role in the segmentation process both by refining the expression patterns of gap genes and by establishing pair-rules stripes of gene expression.
(UniProt, P10734)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
kni: knirps
Zygotic gap gene whose mutants are homozygous lethal; their denticle belts in segments one through seven are fused into a single field (Nusslein-Volhard and Wieschaus, 1980), but the head, thorax, eighth abdominal segment, and tail region appear normal. Embryos homozygous for a strong kni mutant show a wide band of ftz staining instead of the normal number of ftz stripes (Carroll and Scott, 1986).
ri: radius incompletus
thumb
ri: radius incompletus
From Edith M. Wallace, unpublished.
Vein L2 interrupted. Wings slightly warped and blunt. Acts during contraction period in D. simulans, inhibiting fusion of small spaces into a vein (Waddington, 1940, J. Genet. 41: 75-139). RK1.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\kni or the JBrowse view of Dmel\kni for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0078283
2100
429
FBtr0344836
1911
434
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.5, 2.2 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0077941
45.6
429
8.35
FBpp0311151
46.2
434
8.35
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
429 (aa); 45.6 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\kni using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (14 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000637642
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000637642
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001628
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001628, InterPro:IPR013088
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001628
(assigned by InterPro )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

embryonic large intestine | restricted

Comment: two lateral cells rows on either side of embryonic large intestine

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
kni is expressed in the third instar wing disc in a narrow stripe corresponding to the position of the L2 primordium.
kni is expressed in the blastoderm embryo from approximately 30-45% egg length.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{kni64}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{kni.KBg}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{kni.KD}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{kni(4.4)-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{kni-lacZ.2R}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{kni-lacZ.Ψ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{kni-lacZ.W}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\kni in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 35 )
Transgenic Constructs ( 62 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of kni
Allele of kni
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of kni
characterization construct
Name
Expression Data
GAL4 construct
Name
Expression Data
Deletions and Duplications ( 16 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adherens junction & embryonic dorsal trunk, with Scer\GAL4btl.PS
adult thorax & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096
embryonic/first instar larval cuticle & abdominal segment 1
embryonic/first instar larval cuticle & abdominal segment 2
embryonic/first instar larval cuticle & abdominal segment 3
embryonic/first instar larval cuticle & abdominal segment 4
embryonic/first instar larval cuticle & abdominal segment 5
embryonic/first instar larval cuticle & abdominal segment 6
embryonic/first instar larval cuticle & abdominal segment 7
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190BYX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091509IE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0AD0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0AGS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0960 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-47
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:20,692,330..20,695,378 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    77E3-77E3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}trblEP3519 and P{EP}fngEP3082&P{lacW}skdL7062
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    77E1-77E2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (340)
    Genomic Clones (28)
    cDNA Clones (11)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: kni ri
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for kni protein in 2-3 hr embryos; see BDTNP1_TFBS_kni collection report.
    dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene. RNAi of kni causes dorsal overextension of primary dendrites in ddaD and ddaE neurons. For such neurons, the most distal branchpoint is located 25 microns or further from the distal tip of the primary dendrite. However, branching of these dendrites is almost completely blocked. RNAi also causes defects in muscle, defects in the epidermis and defects in dendrite morphogenesis.
    Both Dpp and FGF signalling pathways control kni expression.
    kni and knrl appear to be important in spatially restricting endoreduplication domains.
    knrl and kni possess multiple and redundant functions during tracheal development. knrl/ kni activity is necessary to mediate dpp signalling (which is required for tracheal cell migration and formation of dorsal and ventral branches). knrl/ kni activity in dorsal tracheal cells is essential for secondary and terminal branch formation, via repression of salm. The border between dorsal trunk and branch identity is established by the direct interaction of kni with a salm cis-regulatory element.
    Zygotic activation of h stripe 6 expression is preceded by activation in response to maternal cad activity, activation does not depend exclusively on the zygotic activity of kni as thought previously. cad and kni activities cooperate in a non-synergistic manner to activate h stripe 6 transcription. Absence of kni does not cause lack of h stripe 6 activation but delays the appearance of the stripe. Activation of the stripe depends on a minimal number of activator binding sites that are scattered throughout the stripe 6 element.
    In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.
    Mutations in kni fail to complement ri, when rearranged with respect to each other, while complementing without rearrangement, suggesting ri-kni transvection. A kni cDNA transgene can rescue the ri phenotype. Genomic Southern data reveals that transheterozygosity of overlapping deficiencies resulting in an ri phenotype creates a small synthetic deletion in the kni upstream region.
    Mutants are isolated in an EMS mutagenesis screen to identify zygotic mutations affecting germ cell migration at discrete points during embryogenesis: mutants exhibit gap pattern defects.
    CtBP mediates transcriptional repression by the kni, Kr and sna products in the Drosophila embryo.
    In vitro binding assays, gene dosage studies and transgenic repression assays suggest that CtBP is essential for kni-mediated repression in the early embryo. sna may also require CtBP.
    The eve stripe 2 enhancer and yeast Scer\FLP1-Scer\FRT system have been used to create a domain of ectopic kni expression in the blastoderm embryo. Specific disruptions of pair-rule patterning are correlated with the level and timing of ectopic expression. This suggests that the ectopic kni domain acts as a source for morphogenetic activity that specifies regions in the embryo where pair-rule genes can be activated or repressed.
    The kni gene product mediates both transcriptional quenching and direct repression. The range of kni repression at upstream activators is ~50-100bp, leaving neighboring enhancers free to interact with the transcription complex. kni can also act in promoter-proximal positions, as a dominant repressor, where it can block multiple enhancers.
    Gene product is known to regulate Kr CD (cis acting control element) expression.
    Two independent and redundant elements in the kni upstream region depend upon bcd and cad activity. Ecol\lacZ reporter gene analysis demonstrates bcd and cad are necessary to activate kni.
    Rescue of the kni- embryonic abdominal segmentation phenotype by Res requires another gene, it is likely this is knrl.
    Transcription factors hb and kni can associate with Kr in vitro and they interact functionally with Kr-dependent target gene expression mediated by a single Kr-binding site close to an heterologous promoter in Schneider cells.
    The abdominal cad domain is required to activate the gap genes kni and gt.
    Misexpression of kniby the eve stripe 2 enhancer demonstrates that kni can function as an homeotic gene outside its normal domain.
    Loss of vein mutations cause suppression of rhohs.PSt ectopic vein phenotype and enhancement of the rhove-1 loss of vein phenotype.
    The biochemically equivalent gene products of kni and knrl are both functional in the head anlage and lack of one gene can be overcome by the activity of the other. kni is also required for abdominal segmentation and knrl is nonfunctional in its posterior expression domain. Therefore the kni/knrl pair of genes provides a region-specific buffering system, rather than global functional redundancy.
    h stripe 6 is critically dependent upon kni for activation.
    E(z) is required to maintain the expression domain of kni and gt initiated by the maternal hb gradient. A small region of the kni promoter mediates regulation by E(z) and hb.
    Regulation of kni and knrl in their common anterior expression domain requires the same trans-acting factors. Both genes fail to be activated by bcd or dl.
    Expression of prd depends on activation by gap gene hb, Kr, kni and gt products. Primary pair rule gene products act primarily in subsequent modulation rather than activation of prd stripes. Factors activating prd expression in the pair rule mode interact with those activating it along the dorso-ventral axis.
    The role of kni in the regulation of run mRNA expression in the early embryo has been investigated.
    DNaseI footprinting analysis reveals core histones His2A, His2B, His3 and His4 (but not His1) bind to the kni minimal enhancer element in a periodic manner.
    Evolutionary history for nuclear receptor genes, in which gene duplication events and swapping between domains of different origins took place, is studied.
    4.4kb upstream sequence of kni directs Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs in a region corresponding to the endogenous kni transcripts. Deletion constructs were made to determine how kni is spatially regulated.
    Males of an isogenic line with a mutation at the ri locus were treated with a standard light heat shock and by a heavy heat shock. Mass transposition of the copia-like element 412 occurred at five transposition "hot-spots" (43B, 49CD, 56A, 56E and 66A) when the F1 generation of males were crossed with untreated females of the same isogenic line. The probabilities of transposition were two orders of magnitude higher than in the control sample. Stepwise temperature treatment shows the induction depends on the intensity of the temperature than any other stress action.
    kni is required to establish abdominal segmentation. knrl differs from kni with respect to transcription unit size, kni contains 1kb and knrl contains 19kb intron sequences. The consequence of the intron difference is that knrl cannot substitute for kni segmentation function. The length of the mitotic cycle provides physiological barrier to transcript size and could be a significant factor in controlling developmental gene activity during short phenocritical periods.
    kni was included in a study to determine how gap genes influence gt expression.
    kni is a dual regulator of gt in the embryo: represses in the head regions and maintains high levels of gt in the tail.
    Mutations in zygotic cardinal gene kni interact with RpII140wimp.
    Mutant kni embryos do not alter the expression of the Ubx bx region enhancer element, BRE.
    Zygotically active locus involved in the terminal developmental program in the embryo.
    Mutations in ri affect individual longitudinal veins: vein specific effects.
    kni mutants exhibit deletion of the abdomen.
    The effect of hb protein concentration on the expression of kni and Kr in the embryo has been studied.
    The expression patterns of Kr and kni demonstrate the proteins form overlapping concentration gradients that generate the periodic pair-rule expression pattern.
    ri, tg, tt, ab, cv, cv-2, cv-c and cv-d belong to the radius incompletus phenotypic group within the 'lack-of-vein' mutant class. Loss-of-function alleles at these loci remove stretches of veins in two or more longitudinal veins. Double mutants of this group have additive phenotypes suggesting the genes are vein-specific, and have small lanceolate wings. Genes are involved in whole vein region-specification rather than vein differentiation.
    An investigation of the role of gap genes in expression from Ubx and Antp promoters in the blastoderm embryo reveals that a unique combination of gap genes and pair rule genes is required for their initial activation.
    Mutations in kni alter gt expression in the posterior of the embryo.
    Expression of kni-Ecol\lacZ regulatory fusion constructs in mutant embryos shows that kni expression is repressed by tll activity, but enhanced by Kr activity.
    Genetic analysis demonstrates that the effect of the gap gene product kni on homeotic gene expression in the visceral mesoderm is indirect and mediated by the genes that establish parasegment borders, eve and ftz.
    kni activity exerts a negative effect on Antp expression. This negative regulation is indirect and mediated by an alteration of Kr expression, this can be seen when comparing Antp expression in kni- embryos and Kr-/kni- embryos. kni is involved in restricting Abd-B products within the A8--A9 domain.
    Mutant embryos exhibit normal Dfd expression.
    Molecular characterisation of kni.
    kni mutants display denticle bands of A1 to A7 fused.
    Mutant individuals display interruptions of wing vein L2.
    Zygotic gap gene whose mutants are homozygous lethal; their denticle belts in segments one through seven are fused into a single field (Nusslein-Volhard and Wieschaus, 1980), but the head, thorax, eighth abdominal segment and tail region appear normal. Embryos homozygous for a strong kni mutant show a wide band of ftz staining instead of the normal number of ftz stripes (Carroll and Scott, 1986).
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 41 )
    Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (13)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    kni
    (Haines and Eisen, 2018, Myasnikova and Spirov, 2018, Myasnikova and Spirov, 2018, Chertkova et al., 2017, Forés et al., 2017, Gursky et al., 2017, Martín et al., 2017, Samee et al., 2017, Xu et al., 2017, Crocker et al., 2016, Hoermann et al., 2016, Levario et al., 2016, Ma et al., 2016, Miller et al., 2016, Peng et al., 2016, Urbach et al., 2016, Bothma et al., 2015, Cicin-Sain et al., 2015, Duque and Sinha, 2015, Forés et al., 2015, Kok et al., 2015, Kozlov et al., 2015, Loedige et al., 2015, Matsuda et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Tkačik et al., 2015, Villaverde et al., 2015, Xie et al., 2015, Bonnay et al., 2014, Boyle et al., 2014, Butí et al., 2014, Chandran et al., 2014, Danielsen et al., 2014, Harumoto et al., 2014, Jiang and Singh, 2014, Becker et al., 2013, Chen et al., 2013, Combs and Eisen, 2013, Kim et al., 2013, Kim et al., 2013, Knowles and Biggin, 2013, Little et al., 2013, McKay and Lieb, 2013, Samee and Sinha, 2013, Saunders et al., 2013, Spirov and Holloway, 2013, Sung et al., 2013, Surkova et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Aswani et al., 2012, Brody et al., 2012, Crombach et al., 2012, Crombach et al., 2012, Jaeger et al., 2012, Kim et al., 2012, Kozlov et al., 2012, Kvon et al., 2012, Liang et al., 2012, Nikulova et al., 2012, Perry et al., 2012, Sokolowski et al., 2012, Turki-Judeh and Courey, 2012, Ajuria et al., 2011, Chung et al., 2011, Dworkin et al., 2011, Fowlkes et al., 2011, Kaplan et al., 2011, Kim et al., 2011, Kim et al., 2011, Li et al., 2011, Liu and Ma, 2011, Nègre et al., 2011, Nien et al., 2011, Perry et al., 2011, Pilgram et al., 2011, Tsurumi et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Aswani et al., 2010, Kazemian et al., 2010, Rendina et al., 2010, Sánchez et al., 2010, Tran et al., 2010, Weiss et al., 2010, Ashyraliyev et al., 2009, Butler et al., 2009, Christensen et al., 2009.5.6, Christensen et al., 2009.5.6, Fomekong-Nanfack et al., 2009, Fomekong-Nanfack et al., 2009, Goering et al., 2009, Kim et al., 2009, Löhr et al., 2009, MacArthur et al., 2009, Manu et al., 2009, Manu et al., 2009, Marco et al., 2009, Ochoa-Espinosa et al., 2009, Payankaulam and Arnosti, 2009, Perkins et al., 2009.8.10, Pisarev et al., 2009, Tchuraev and Galimzyanov, 2009, Terriente-Félix and de Celis, 2009, Venken et al., 2009, Venken et al., 2009, Ashyraliyev et al., 2008, Blanco and Gehring, 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.4.15, Christensen et al., 2008.4.15, Cinnamon et al., 2008, Cook et al., 2008, Cook et al., 2008.9.3, Fowlkes et al., 2008, Haecker et al., 2008, Hare et al., 2008, Jennings et al., 2008, Segal et al., 2008, Surkova et al., 2008, Surkova et al., 2008, Yu and Small, 2008, Aerts et al., 2007, Akdemir et al., 2007, Araujo et al., 2007, Haecker et al., 2007, Jaeger et al., 2007, Sandmann et al., 2007, Xing et al., 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, Zinzen and Papatsenko, 2007, Arbouzova et al., 2006, Azevedo et al., 2006, Bangi and Wharton, 2006, Cela and Llimargas, 2006, Guichard et al., 2006, Jaeger and Reinitz, 2006, Janssens et al., 2006, Jennings et al., 2006, Jiang and Crews, 2006, Luengo Hendriks et al., 2006, Moran and Jimenez, 2006, Otsuna and Ito, 2006, Perkins et al., 2006, Sotillos and de Celis, 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Peel et al., 2005, Stathopoulos and Levine, 2005, Struffi and Arnosti, 2005, Angulo et al., 2004, Grad et al., 2004, Gurunathan et al., 2004, Kreiman, 2004, Stanyon et al., 2004, Clyde et al., 2003, Daulny et al., 2003, Fu et al., 2003, Zeremski et al., 2003, Chen et al., 1998)
    Name Synonyms
    knirps
    (Crocker et al., 2016, Urbach et al., 2016, Wieschaus and Nüsslein-Volhard, 2016, Bothma et al., 2015, Cicin-Sain et al., 2015, Forés et al., 2015, Kozlov et al., 2015, Matsuda et al., 2015, Peng et al., 2015, Butí et al., 2014, Becker et al., 2013, Spirov and Holloway, 2013, Surkova et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Crombach et al., 2012, Crombach et al., 2012, Jaeger et al., 2012, Liang et al., 2012, Bieler et al., 2011, Chung et al., 2011, Gursky et al., 2011, Li and Arnosti, 2011, Liu and Ma, 2011, Nègre et al., 2011, Papatsenko and Levine, 2011, Perry et al., 2011, Tsurumi et al., 2011, Turner et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Biehs et al., 2010, Sánchez et al., 2010, Tran et al., 2010, Butler et al., 2009, Iovino et al., 2009, Löhr et al., 2009, Manu et al., 2009, Manu et al., 2009, Ochoa-Espinosa et al., 2009, Papatsenko et al., 2009, Pisarev et al., 2009, Saunders and Howard, 2009, Terriente-Félix and de Celis, 2009, Zamparo and Perkins, 2009, Blanco and Gehring, 2008, Bosveld et al., 2008, Cinnamon et al., 2008, Cook et al., 2008, Haecker et al., 2008, Ishihara and Shibata, 2008, Jennings et al., 2008, Surkova et al., 2008, Yu and Small, 2008, Haecker et al., 2007, Jaeger et al., 2007, Levine et al., 2007, Payankaulam and Arnosti, 2007, Sosinsky et al., 2007, Xing et al., 2007, Zinzen and Papatsenko, 2007, Jaeger and Reinitz, 2006, Jiang and Crews, 2006, McGregor, 2006, Moran and Jimenez, 2006, Payankaulam et al., 2006, Sotillos and de Celis, 2006, Abnizova et al., 2005, King-Jones and Thummel, 2005, Kreiman, 2004, Zeremski et al., 2003, Chen et al., 1998, Nauber, 1988.10.24)
    radius incompletus
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0003253
    • FBgn0017615
    Datasets (2)
    Study focus (2)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    • bait_protein
    ChIP characterization of transcription factor genome binding, Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Factor Network Project.
    • bait_protein
    Genome-wide localization of transcription factors by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
    References (702)