General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ed
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
echinoid
Annotation Symbol
CG12676
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000547
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Echinoid is a cell adhesion molecule of adherens junctions that mediate cell adhesion/recognition. It participates in multiple signaling pathways including EGFR, Notch and Hippo during organogenesis. It is also required in multiple steps of dorsal closure during embryogenesis. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As
l(2)k01102
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:4,031,377..4,115,749 [+]
Recombination map
2-11
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
Positive Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Positive regulators of the pathway, enhance the cytosolic retention of yki, negatively regulating tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
Negative Regulators of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor signaling down-regulate the pathway, suppressing the activation of ERK kinase (rl) or acting on downstream effectors.
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
ed: echinoid
Eyes large and rough. Easily classified, although not as extreme as ec. Su(S)/ed is echinoid in phenotype (Gelbart). RK1.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\ed or the JBrowse view of Dmel\ed for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0077465
5065
1332
FBtr0334265
6378
1332
FBtr0334266
5112
1281
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0077154
146.5
1332
6.51
FBpp0306381
146.5
1332
6.51
FBpp0306382
140.5
1281
6.70
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1332 aa isoforms: ed-PA, ed-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ed using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (28 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (20 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (20 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:fz; FB:FBgn0001085
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:pnt; FB:FBgn0003118
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:stan; FB:FBgn0024836
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:cno; FB:FBgn0259212
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:yki; FB:FBgn0034970
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:sav; FB:FBgn0053193
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
High levels of ed protein localize at the apical surface of all cells in the MF and through row 1. In rows 3 and 4, ed is reduced specifically within the cells that will soon begin to rotate, making the photoreceptor clusters appear as holes within the imaginal disc epithelium. This staining pattern persists until row 7. High ed levels are observed in photoreceptors R1, R6 and R7 when they are recruited into the growing ommatidium in rows 5/6. A dramatic shift in the relative levels of ed within the ommatidia and in the interommatidial cells occurs when cone cells are recruited. ed becomes prominent in two bands, one at the interface between the cone cells and the photoreceptors and a second at the interface between the cone cells and the interommatidial cells.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ed in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 51 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of ed
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
      0
      --
        0
        --
          0
          --
            0
            --
              0
              --
                0
                --
                Other relevant insertions
                Transgenic Constructs ( 32 )
                For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
                Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ed
                Allele of ed
                Mutagen
                Associated Transgenic Construct
                Stocks
                Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ed
                Deletions and Duplications ( 52 )
                Summary of Phenotypes
                For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
                Lethality
                Allele
                Other Phenotypes
                Allele
                Phenotype manifest in
                Allele
                adult thorax & microchaeta | ectopic
                chemosensory ventral triple row & microchaeta | ectopic
                chemosensory ventral triple row & microchaeta | ectopic (with edk01102)
                chemosensory ventral triple row & microchaeta | ectopic (with edlH23)
                dorsal triple row & macrochaeta | ectopic
                dorsal triple row & microchaeta | ectopic (with edk01102)
                dorsal triple row & microchaeta | ectopic (with edlH23)
                embryonic leading edge cell & actomyosin
                eye (with ed2B8)
                sensillum campaniformium & wing | supernumerary | somatic clone
                Orthologs
                Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
                Homo sapiens (Human) (5)
                Species\Gene Symbol
                Score
                Best Score
                Best Reverse Score
                Alignment
                Complementation?
                Transgene?
                1 of 15
                Yes
                No
                1 of 15
                Yes
                No
                1 of 15
                Yes
                No
                1 of 15
                Yes
                Yes
                1 of 15
                Yes
                No
                Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
                Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
                Species\Gene Symbol
                Score
                Best Score
                Best Reverse Score
                Alignment
                Complementation?
                Transgene?
                1 of 15
                Yes
                No
                 
                1 of 15
                Yes
                No
                 
                1 of 15
                Yes
                No
                 
                1 of 15
                Yes
                Yes
                Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
                1 of 13
                Yes
                No
                1 of 13
                Yes
                No
                1 of 13
                Yes
                No
                Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
                No orthologs reported.
                Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (6)
                1 of 15
                Yes
                No
                1 of 15
                Yes
                No
                1 of 15
                Yes
                No
                1 of 15
                Yes
                No
                1 of 15
                Yes
                No
                1 of 15
                Yes
                No
                Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
                8 of 15
                Yes
                Yes
                1 of 15
                No
                No
                1 of 15
                No
                Yes
                1 of 15
                No
                No
                Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
                No orthologs reported.
                Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
                No orthologs reported.
                Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
                No orthologs reported.
                Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900RH )
                Organism
                Common Name
                Gene
                AAA Syntenic Ortholog
                Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                Drosophila melanogaster
                fruit fly
                Drosophila suzukii
                Spotted wing Drosophila
                Drosophila simulans
                Drosophila sechellia
                Drosophila erecta
                Drosophila yakuba
                Drosophila ananassae
                Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
                Drosophila persimilis
                Drosophila willistoni
                Drosophila virilis
                Drosophila mojavensis
                Drosophila grimshawi
                Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500TK )
                Organism
                Common Name
                Gene
                Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                Musca domestica
                House fly
                Musca domestica
                House fly
                Glossina morsitans
                Tsetse fly
                Glossina morsitans
                Tsetse fly
                Lucilia cuprina
                Australian sheep blowfly
                Lucilia cuprina
                Australian sheep blowfly
                Mayetiola destructor
                Hessian fly
                Aedes aegypti
                Yellow fever mosquito
                Aedes aegypti
                Yellow fever mosquito
                Anopheles darlingi
                American malaria mosquito
                Anopheles gambiae
                Malaria mosquito
                Anopheles gambiae
                Malaria mosquito
                Culex quinquefasciatus
                Southern house mosquito
                Culex quinquefasciatus
                Southern house mosquito
                Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00KL )
                Organism
                Common Name
                Gene
                Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                Bombyx mori
                Silkmoth
                Danaus plexippus
                Monarch butterfly
                Heliconius melpomene
                Postman butterfly
                Apis florea
                Little honeybee
                Apis mellifera
                Western honey bee
                Bombus impatiens
                Common eastern bumble bee
                Bombus terrestris
                Buff-tailed bumblebee
                Linepithema humile
                Argentine ant
                Megachile rotundata
                Alfalfa leafcutting bee
                Nasonia vitripennis
                Parasitic wasp
                Dendroctonus ponderosae
                Mountain pine beetle
                Tribolium castaneum
                Red flour beetle
                Pediculus humanus
                Human body louse
                Rhodnius prolixus
                Kissing bug
                Cimex lectularius
                Bed bug
                Acyrthosiphon pisum
                Pea aphid
                Zootermopsis nevadensis
                Nevada dampwood termite
                Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00AG )
                Organism
                Common Name
                Gene
                Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                Strigamia maritima
                European centipede
                Stegodyphus mimosarum
                African social velvet spider
                Daphnia pulex
                Water flea
                Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
                No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
                Human Disease Model Data
                FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
                  Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
                  Download
                  Models ( 0 )
                  Allele
                  Disease
                  Evidence
                  References
                  Interactions ( 0 )
                  Allele
                  Disease
                  Interaction
                  References
                  Comments ( 0 )
                   
                  Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
                  Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
                  Homo sapiens (Human)
                  Gene name
                  Score
                  OMIM
                  OMIM Phenotype
                  Complementation?
                  Transgene?
                  Functional Complementation Data
                  Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
                  Interactions
                  Summary of Physical Interactions
                  esyN Network Diagram
                  Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
                  Select Layout:
                  Legend:
                  Protein
                  RNA
                  Selected Interactor(s)
                  Interactions Browser

                  Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
                  protein-protein
                  Interacting group
                  Assay
                  References
                  Summary of Genetic Interactions
                  esyN Network Diagram
                  esyN Network Key:
                  Suppression
                  Enhancement

                  Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
                  Starting gene(s)
                  Interaction type
                  Interacting gene(s)
                  Reference
                  suppressible
                  suppressible
                  Starting gene(s)
                  Interaction type
                  Interacting gene(s)
                  Reference
                  suppressible
                  suppressible
                  suppressible
                  suppressible
                  suppressible
                  External Data
                  Linkouts
                  BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
                  DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
                  InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
                  Pathways
                  Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
                  Positive Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
                  The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Positive regulators of the pathway, enhance the cytosolic retention of yki, negatively regulating tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
                  Negative Regulators of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway -
                  Negative regulators of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor signaling down-regulate the pathway, suppressing the activation of ERK kinase (rl) or acting on downstream effectors.
                  External Data
                  Linkouts
                  KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
                  Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
                  Chromosome (arm)
                  2L
                  Recombination map
                  2-11
                  Cytogenetic map
                  Sequence location
                  2L:4,031,377..4,115,749 [+]
                  FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
                  Cytogenetic map
                  Evidence for location
                  24D4-24D6
                  Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP2595EP2595 and P{lacW}edk01102
                  Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
                  Cytogenetic map
                  Notes
                  References
                  24D3-24D4
                  (determined by in situ hybridisation)
                  24D3-24D5
                  Cytological location determined using genetic mapping.
                  Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
                  Left of (cM)
                  Right of (cM)
                  Notes
                  Stocks and Reagents
                  Stocks (68)
                  Genomic Clones (73)
                  cDNA Clones (80)
                   

                  Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

                  cDNA clones, fully sequences
                  BDGP DGC clones
                  Other clones
                  Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

                  For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

                  cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
                  RNAi and Array Information
                  Linkouts
                  DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
                  GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
                  Antibody Information
                  Laboratory Generated Antibodies
                  Commercially Available Antibodies
                   
                  Other Information
                  Relationship to Other Genes
                  Source for database identify of
                  Source for database merge of
                  Source for merge of: ed l(2)k01102
                  Source for merge of: ed l(2)k01102 CG15424 CG12676 E(Elp)24D
                  Source for merge of: ed CG16842
                  Additional comments
                  Source for merge of ed CG16842 was sequence comparison ( date:010202 ).
                  Other Comments
                  ed and fred are both required in photoreceptors R1, R6 and R7 and in the cone cells for correct ommatidial rotation.
                  ed and Grip may form a signaling complex, where competition between the N-terminal and C-terminal PDZ domains of the Grip protein for ed protein binding controls signaling function.
                  S2-derived S2-NP cells are treated with dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against ed to assess the role of this gene in Stat92E tyrosine phosphorylation.
                  ed is required for os-induced Stat92E phosphorylation.
                  ed interacts synergistically with the N signaling pathway.
                  ed has a role in restricting neurogenic potential during embryonic neurogenesis. ed is also required to suppress sensory bristles and for correct specification of wing veins during adult development.
                  Loss of function mutations in ed give rise to the development of extra macrochaetae near the extant ones in the notum and also increase the density of the microchaetae. ed loss of function mutants show synergistic interactions with components of the N pathway.
                  Nrg appears to act as a heterophilic ligand and receptor of ed which in turn antagonises Egfr signaling.
                  ed mutants show extra photoreceptors and cone cells, while ed overexpression leads to a reduction in the number of photoreceptors. ed acts cell non-autonomously in the generation of supernumerary R7 cells. Epistasis analysis suggests that ed acts parallel to or downstream of phl, Ras85D, pnt, aop and sina but upstream of ttk to specify R7 cell fates.
                  The intracellular domain of ed is required for the repression of Egfr signalling.
                  ed defines a pathway that antagonizes Egfr signalling by regulating the activity, but not the level, of the ttk TTK88 transcriptional repressor.
                  ed protein binds Egfr directly and becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to Egfr activation.
                  Developing eye discs mutant for ed display extra and mis-patterned R8 cells; staining with antibodies against phosphorylated MAP kinase suggests that this may be a consequence of increased Egfr activity.
                  ed is one of several proteins necessary to regulate Egfr activity during development.
                  An EMS-induced mutation that defines a novel negative regulator of Egfr.
                  Mutants isolated in a screen of the second chromosome identifying genes affecting disc morphology.
                  Origin and Etymology
                  Discoverer
                  Bridges, 16th Jan. 1931.
                  Etymology
                  Identification
                  External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 58 )
                  Crossreferences
                  NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
                  GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
                  RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
                  UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
                  Other crossreferences
                  Linkouts
                  ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
                  BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
                  Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
                  DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
                  DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
                  FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
                  FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
                  Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
                  Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
                  FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
                  GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
                  iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
                  Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
                  InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
                  KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
                  modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
                  Synonyms and Secondary IDs (13)
                  Reported As
                  Symbol Synonym
                  CG15424
                  E(Elp)24D
                  Secondary FlyBase IDs
                  • FBgn0022256
                  • FBgn0031582
                  • FBgn0031583
                  • FBgn0031584
                  Datasets (0)
                  Study focus (0)
                  Experimental Role
                  Project
                  Project Type
                  Title
                  References (186)