General Information
Symbol
Dmel\comt
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
comatose
Annotation Symbol
CG1618
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000346
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Adenosinetriphosphatase (3.6.1.3)
Gene Snapshot
The comatose gene encodes the N-ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor 1 protein. It is required for maintenance of neurotransmitter release through disassembly or rearrangement of plasma membrane SNARE complexes following synaptic vesicle fusion. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-23]
Also Known As
dNSF1, NSF, com, dNSF-1, dNSF
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:13,259,021..13,262,488 [+]
Recombination map
1-42
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the AAA ATPase family. (P46461)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate (3.6.1.3)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS -
The N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor/fusion protein (NSF), is a hexameric ATPase recruited to SNARE-SNAP complexes. ATP hydrolysis by NSF, leads to conformational changes and dissociation of the SNARE complex. (Adapted from FBrf0141270).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Required for vesicle-mediated transport. Catalyzes the fusion of transport vesicles within the Golgi cisternae. Is also required for transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi stack. Seems to function as a fusion protein required for the delivery of cargo proteins to all compartments of the Golgi stack independent of vesicle origin.
(UniProt, P46461)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
comt: comatose (J.C. Hall)
Larvae or adults become paralyzed when exposed to high temperatures, but this requires many seconds for induction; recovery from immobility on lowering of temperature is slow and directly correlated with duration of paralysis; most of the comt alleles do not induce relatively rapid paralysis until 38 (Siddiqi and Benzer, 1976), but two (com101, com102) cause pass-out at 29 (Homyk, Szidonya, and Suzuki, 1980, Mol. Gen. Genet. 177: 553-65); the mutations induce graded decrease and recovery of function of synapses at neuromuscular junctions as temperature is raised and lowered (Siddiqi and Benzer, 1976); several alleles are cold sensitive for paralysis as well as heat sensitive (Siddiqi and Benzer, 1976). ERG normal (Homyk and Pye, 1989, J. Neurogenet. 5: 37-48).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\comt or the JBrowse view of Dmel\comt for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Gene model reviewed during 5.39
Gene model reviewed during 5.43
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0073754
3087
745
FBtr0333329
3024
745
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.2 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0073585
82.6
745
7.52
FBpp0305521
82.6
745
7.52
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

745 aa isoforms: comt-PA, comt-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homohexamer.
(UniProt, P46461)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\comt using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (20 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR003959, InterPro:IPR003960
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000554891
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
Biological Process (13 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000554891
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000554891
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with synaptic vesicle
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000554891
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
comt protein is enriched in the neuropil of the larval ventral ganglion, where synapses occur.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with synaptic vesicle
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\comt in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 30 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of comt
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    Yes
      0
      Yes
        0
        Yes
          0
          Yes
            0
            Yes
            Other relevant insertions
            Transgenic Constructs ( 20 )
            For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
            Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of comt
            Allele of comt
            Mutagen
            Associated Transgenic Construct
            Stocks
            Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of comt
            Deletions and Duplications ( 3 )
            Summary of Phenotypes
            For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
            Lethality
            Allele
            Other Phenotypes
            Allele
            Phenotype manifest in
            Allele
            optic cartridge & synaptic vesicle
            Orthologs
            Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
            Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
            Species\Gene Symbol
            Score
            Best Score
            Best Reverse Score
            Alignment
            Complementation?
            Transgene?
            14 of 15
            Yes
            Yes
             
            Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
            Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
            Species\Gene Symbol
            Score
            Best Score
            Best Reverse Score
            Alignment
            Complementation?
            Transgene?
            14 of 15
            Yes
            Yes
            Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
            10 of 13
            Yes
            Yes
            Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
            7 of 12
            Yes
            Yes
            Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
            14 of 15
            Yes
            Yes
            13 of 15
            No
            Yes
            Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
            14 of 15
            Yes
            Yes
            Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
            8 of 9
            Yes
            Yes
            Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
            15 of 15
            Yes
            Yes
            Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
            12 of 12
            Yes
            Yes
            Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902XK )
            Organism
            Common Name
            Gene
            AAA Syntenic Ortholog
            Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
            Drosophila melanogaster
            fruit fly
            Drosophila suzukii
            Spotted wing Drosophila
            Drosophila simulans
            Drosophila erecta
            Drosophila yakuba
            Drosophila ananassae
            Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
            Drosophila persimilis
            Drosophila willistoni
            Drosophila virilis
            Drosophila mojavensis
            Drosophila grimshawi
            Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501VJ )
            Organism
            Common Name
            Gene
            Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
            Musca domestica
            House fly
            Glossina morsitans
            Tsetse fly
            Lucilia cuprina
            Australian sheep blowfly
            Mayetiola destructor
            Hessian fly
            Aedes aegypti
            Yellow fever mosquito
            Anopheles darlingi
            American malaria mosquito
            Anopheles gambiae
            Malaria mosquito
            Culex quinquefasciatus
            Southern house mosquito
            Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01MD )
            Organism
            Common Name
            Gene
            Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
            Bombyx mori
            Silkmoth
            Danaus plexippus
            Monarch butterfly
            Heliconius melpomene
            Postman butterfly
            Apis florea
            Little honeybee
            Apis mellifera
            Western honey bee
            Bombus impatiens
            Common eastern bumble bee
            Bombus impatiens
            Common eastern bumble bee
            Bombus terrestris
            Buff-tailed bumblebee
            Bombus terrestris
            Buff-tailed bumblebee
            Linepithema humile
            Argentine ant
            Megachile rotundata
            Alfalfa leafcutting bee
            Nasonia vitripennis
            Parasitic wasp
            Dendroctonus ponderosae
            Mountain pine beetle
            Tribolium castaneum
            Red flour beetle
            Pediculus humanus
            Human body louse
            Pediculus humanus
            Human body louse
            Rhodnius prolixus
            Kissing bug
            Cimex lectularius
            Bed bug
            Acyrthosiphon pisum
            Pea aphid
            Zootermopsis nevadensis
            Nevada dampwood termite
            Zootermopsis nevadensis
            Nevada dampwood termite
            Zootermopsis nevadensis
            Nevada dampwood termite
            Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01KE )
            Organism
            Common Name
            Gene
            Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
            Strigamia maritima
            European centipede
            Ixodes scapularis
            Black-legged tick
            Ixodes scapularis
            Black-legged tick
            Stegodyphus mimosarum
            African social velvet spider
            Tetranychus urticae
            Two-spotted spider mite
            Daphnia pulex
            Water flea
            Daphnia pulex
            Water flea
            Daphnia pulex
            Water flea
            Daphnia pulex
            Water flea
            Daphnia pulex
            Water flea
            Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G02LU )
            Organism
            Common Name
            Gene
            Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
            Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
            Purple sea urchin
            Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
            Purple sea urchin
            Ciona intestinalis
            Vase tunicate
            Ciona intestinalis
            Vase tunicate
            Gallus gallus
            Domestic chicken
            Human Disease Model Data
            FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
            Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
            Download
            Models ( 4 )
            Allele
            Disease
            Evidence
            References
            inferred from mutant phenotype
            inferred from mutant phenotype
            inferred from mutant phenotype
            inferred from mutant phenotype
            Interactions ( 1 )
            Allele
            Disease
            Interaction
            References
            Comments ( 0 )
             
            Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
            Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
            Homo sapiens (Human)
            Gene name
            Score
            OMIM
            OMIM Phenotype
            Complementation?
            Transgene?
            Functional Complementation Data
            Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
            Interactions
            Summary of Physical Interactions
            Summary of Genetic Interactions
            esyN Network Diagram
            esyN Network Key:
            Suppression
            Enhancement

            Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
            Starting gene(s)
            Interaction type
            Interacting gene(s)
            Reference
            Starting gene(s)
            Interaction type
            Interacting gene(s)
            Reference
            External Data
            Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
            Homohexamer.
            (UniProt, P46461 )
            Linkouts
            BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
            DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
            InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
            Pathways
            Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
            External Data
            Linkouts
            Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
            Chromosome (arm)
            X
            Recombination map
            1-42
            Cytogenetic map
            Sequence location
            X:13,259,021..13,262,488 [+]
            FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
            Cytogenetic map
            Evidence for location
            11E8-11E8
            Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1461 and P{EP}CG1640EP1626
            Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
            Cytogenetic map
            Notes
            References
            11D9-11E4
            87F12-88A3
            (determined by in situ hybridisation)
            Determined by comparing Celera genomic sequence with sequence from BDGP BAC and P1 clones.
            Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
            Location
            1-40.1
            Left of (cM)
            Right of (cM)
            Notes
            Stocks and Reagents
            Stocks (8)
            Genomic Clones (10)
             

            Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

            cDNA Clones (57)
             

            Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

            cDNA clones, fully sequences
            BDGP DGC clones
            Other clones
              Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

              For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

              cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
              RNAi and Array Information
              Linkouts
              DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
              GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
              Antibody Information
              Laboratory Generated Antibodies
              Commercially Available Antibodies
               
              Other Information
              Relationship to Other Genes
              Source for database identify of
              Source for database merge of
              Source for merge of: comt CG1618
              Additional comments
              Other Comments
              S2 cells treated with dsRNA generated against this gene show reduced phagocytosis of Candida albicans compared to untreated cells.
              comt and Nsf2 exhibit similar functional properties but have evolved distinct tissue-specific roles. comt is required in the nervous system beginning at the adult stage of development whereas Nsf2 is required in the mesoderm beginning at the first larval instar. The comt and Nsf2 proteins can functionally substitute for one another.
              comt normally dissociates and recycles SNARE proteins during the interval between exocytosis and endocytosis in the synaptic vesicle cycle.
              Paralysis in comt mutant flies is activity dependent.
              Evidence of multiple, highly related isoforms of NSF in a single species suggests that in some tissue membranes fusion and/or secretion has a specific role during development.
              Drosophila has a second N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) homolog, Nsf2. comt and Nsf2 display overlapping but different temporal expression patterns.
              Mutations of comt are defective in one component of the molecular machinery mediating vesicle targetting and fusion, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF). comt exhibits an apparent defect in synaptic transmission which is the first functional evidence that NSF in involved in this process.
              comt gene has been cloned and the gene product characterised.
              The neurosecretory apparatus of the presynaptic nerve terminal contains a core complex of conserved secretory proteins, comt is a component this complex.
              Larvae or adults become paralyzed when exposed to high temperatures, but this requires many seconds for induction; recovery from immobility on lowering of temperature is slow and directly correlated with duration of paralysis; most of the comt alleles do not induce relatively rapid paralysis until 38oC (Siddiqi and Benzer, 1976), but two (comt2, comt3) cause pass-out at 29oC (Homyk, Szidonya and Suzuki, 1980); the mutations induce graded decrease and recovery of function of synapses at neuromuscular junctions as temperature is raised and lowered (Siddiqi and Benzer, 1976); several alleles are cold-sensitive for paralysis as well as temperature-sensitive (Siddiqi and Benzer, 1976). ERG normal (Homyk and Pye, 1989).
              Origin and Etymology
              Discoverer
              Etymology
              Identification
              External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 41 )
              Crossreferences
              NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
              GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
              GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
              RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
              UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
              UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
              Linkouts
              BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
              Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
              DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
              DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
              Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
              FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
              FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
              Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
              Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
              FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
              GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
              iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
              Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
              InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
              KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
              modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
              Synonyms and Secondary IDs (21)
              Reported As
              Symbol Synonym
              Name Synonyms
              Secondary FlyBase IDs
              • FBgn0011678
              • FBgn0030463
              Datasets (0)
              Study focus (0)
              Experimental Role
              Project
              Project Type
              Title
              References (129)